Your Blog

Included page "clone:arnoldarnold25" does not exist (create it now)

Tax Helpers for Internet Marketers - 06 Jun 2018 14:48

Tags:

Any money made through your Internet Marketing work counts as income. The IRS has to be aware of that income and it is something on which you should pay taxes. Sadly, the bucks you generate online is not exempt from taxes. Don't trust any person who tries to express to you anything that is different. After all, you do not need to get into trouble with the IRS do you? There are not that many things which are more frustrating or stressful than getting audited. Of course, if you�ve never had to manage your own taxes before, figuring out how to track your income and expenditures and what you owe might be very confusing. Here are a few points which will help you.

It is extremely essential that you keep track of the amount of money you make. The files need to have lots of details in them. Every individual settlement you obtain, who pays it and what it is for must be written down and recorded. The day must be included for each payment as well. You can keep these data in a home accounting program like QuickBooks or in a technique you come up with on your own. Some people find that a simple Excel spreadsheet works best for them. Do not do away with these kinds of records when you finally file your tax return. You should keep them available for at least a few years just in case someone from the IRS wants to see them. Some state that, after 3 years, if you haven�t yet been audited you ought to be okay, but check with the local tax rules of your state.

Keep all of your bills and invoices for your expenditures. In Online marketing, many items can be business relevant deductions. Website managing costs, to work with one example, can usually be claimed on your taxes. You could also typically deduct the money you spend on your office supplies. Do you go to seminars? Ask if you're able to deduct your traveling costs and the cost of the conference. Sometimes even a lot of the money you place toward your internet bill may be deducted as well. It is essential to hold records and duplicates of all of your receipts and payments so that you can prove what you have spent.

Pay on taxes throughout the year. Internet Marketing is technically considered freelance work and freelancers often pay their taxes quarterly so that, when the end of the year shows up, they do not owe as much. A great amount to pay is 30 percent of precisely what you produce that quarter. The IRS has a program set up now that can even let you make payments each month. Track each of the payments you make and maintain copies. When it comes time to file your annual tax return, if you've accidentally sent in too much money, you'll be granted a refund in the amount that you have overpaid.

There are a wide range of ways to make tax time easier when you work in the IM market. The IRS�s internet site has a lot of practical tips that you can use to streamline your book keeping and tax prep. If you have the bucks you might think about employing an accountant to take care of everything for you.

http://www.rankwell.com.au/online-marketing - Comments: 0

Some Hobby Gardening Strategies - 17 May 2018 10:36

Tags:

More Information

One of the popular hobbies for a lot of Americans is having a garden. It's not necessary to be a dedicated fan to have a garden and get some satisfaction out of your creation. Usually there are some essentials to learn, but from then on it is actually quite easy. Here are some ideas to help you prepare your garden for year-round enjoyment.

When you get started, first figure out the order of your planting. The most effective way is to first make your mind up about the larger sized plants, and lastly to plan where the rest should go. When you are organizing your garden, take this into consideration. Establish the fully grown dimensions of the plants you are looking for in your garden. Consider growing perennials if you are just starting as a gardener, because they will reward you in many ways, the first of which is that once planted you will always have them, unlike annuals which die down every season. They also are less costly than annuals and need less maintenance. If you are in search of low upkeep options you should consider black-eyed susans, hostas, or daylilies.

With annuals, rather than buying plants ready to stick in the soil, it is cheaper to start them from seed. This is why many people plant seeds in their garden, but seeding them directly into garden soil is not the best way. The most effective strategy is to plant them in seed trays kept indoors and nurtured with sun and water. This will make them plenty hearty if you are ready to transplant them to the ground outside. Make certain that the garden soil is dry when you move your annuals. Drier garden soil promotes the maximum growth of annuals. Do be sure to mix organic matter into the gardening soil, because this helps retain water in the soil, which is needed by the plants subsequent to planting. If the soil is dry initially the plants take better, but once they start growing the roots want lots of water.

Make a decision on a technique for irrigating your garden, mainly because if that is absent it will cause a real problem. The irrigation process you need is dependent upon the plants that will be growing in your garden. An irrigation system that's embedded in the ground prior to planting may be the way to go if your plants are the thirsty variety. This type of system takes away all worries about the watering of your plants in your absence. Whenever you prepare carefully, you will make your garden energy-efficient. You can establish a slope plan if you have issues about your garden in the summer and the water it needs. Put your taller plants in the appropriate area, because they provide shade for the shorter plants, so they will need less water.

All you need to do is adhere to a few simple ideas, and you can get to be the gardening expert for the neighborhood. As soon as you know the tips for success, you might become an excellent gardener.

Note The previous post is designed for general use and whilst it is up to date at the time of posting you can always try my website for the current information on More Information. - Comments: 0

Keep These Fun Home Improvement Projects on Your To Do - 16 May 2018 08:32

Tags:

There has been a significant trend toward green home improvement projects over the past several years if not more. As the price of fossil fuels continues to rocket this really isn't surprising. So that some money can be saved in the long run, your average homeowner has started to invest in their home. And if the house has an efficient and green energy system the overall value will go up. Even taking proactive measures such as installing Energy Star rated windows and doors will save you money and add more value, too. If you have never considered these approaches, then perhaps you should think about it.

If you are planning on living in your current home for the duration, then it could be a great idea to look at double-paned windows. Consider where you're living though before you invest in this particular project. On the other hand, if you experience extremely hot weather, cold weather, or some combination of the two; it's a good idea. Not only do these windows insulate against heat and cold but also against sound. There are varying distances between the panes that can measure anywhere from one quarter of an inch to one inch. Typically the space is filled with an inert gas such as argon. Let us talk about the energy efficiency of the doors in your home, which might not be too good if you have an older home. Due to the fact that they have an energy efficiency rating that has been given to them, you should choose newer doors for your home. One of the key things that you should do is to make sure that the door frames in your home are air tight. You can even use additional sealing assistants such as magnetic weather stripping and bottom expanders to make sure that the seals are tightly sealed. You can make it even more airtight by utilizing bottom sweeps which tends to be manufactured from vinyl.

If you ever fly over a city in Arizona, California or similar hot southwestern states, you will notice the abundance of swimming pools. You don't have to hang your hat in one of these sweltering hot states to enjoy the benefits of having an in-ground pool o your very own. You won't have any trouble finding excellent pools to fit your home and your lifestyle. Of course you can choose to have all the fun and install the pool yourself or share some of the good stuff and hire a crew to get the job done. You can control the costs of the pool you choose so that it doesn't have to be a major investment. Only you can decide how much you're willing and able to pay for this investment.

Not all home improvement projects are meant to be fun since obviously there are maintenance related tasks that should be done. We have realized that it is helpful to create a monthly and annual schedule of the things that must be done around the home. That way, these important items will not be forgotten about.

Notice The next post is interesting general use and even though it is correct at time of writing you can also go to the original website for the current info on http://www.skilledandreliable.com.au/timber-casement-windows/. Thankyou - Comments: 0

How To Improve Home Electrical Safety - Home-Improvemen - 29 Apr 2018 17:50

Tags:

What you can do in the way of home improvement will largely depend on your particular situation. Your house might have features, like a fireplace, which other homes don't have. So you will need to look at what is there and what you have to work with. Every home you enter has things to teach you, if you are willing to learn. People experience many things and the knowledge gained from those experiences can be passed on to others. The internet is a great place to learn information that was discovered by somebody that you will never meet face-to-face. The rest of us can gain valuable help, when people offer their knowledge.

If you are about to remodel your basement, seriously consider raising the house service electrical receptacles. So if your basement does flood, you won't have a problem with water shorting out your circuits.

Do you live in a dry area? If so, more than likely your basement will never have a flooding problem so this will probably be a nonissue. It is optimal to place them just a few inches higher, not a few feet so that it looks unattractive. If an electrician will be doing the work, then it is best to discuss the matter since he will have a good idea about this.

If you look in your electrical panel, you might see Buss fuses. Electrical wiring now uses circuit breakers, not fuses, in modern homes today. You can still get away with using fuses if that is what your house has. It is your option, but you might want to consider modern circuit breaker panels instead. For safety reasons, you might want to consider using a qualified electrician that can do the job very quickly. Having the adequate current rating for your home is important. This is why you need to hire a trained electrician to get the job done right.

One other thing you might want to do is get an infrared scan for your home to see how well insulated it actually is. You can find services that will do this for you, but the cameras are expensive so they will charge accordingly. Whether you are using a heater or an air conditioner, it is okay! This camera can take the pictures and tell you what you need to know. The pictures will be taken at night for best results, but they can also be done during the day. The IR pictures will capture the thermal image of your house, and the air escaping from your home will be visible.

In conclusion, these home improvement tips will help you improve the safety of your home, but may also be something that you personally cannot do. The electrical outlet checker can be figured out by virtually anyone and utilized the same day.

It is important to complete the other two tips as well. You will have to hire an electrician to get these projects done. So to make your home a much safer place to be, you should complete these three projects as soon as possible.

Notice This blog is aimed at general information and although it is correct at time of publication you can always visit the owners site for the up to date news on timber sliding doors. Thankyou - Comments: 0

Utilize Garden Decor To Rework Your Garden From Blah To - 22 Apr 2018 11:28

Tags:

http://www.thetutuguru.com.au/product-category/plant-types/foliage/

A barren piece of land might be changed into a thing of beauty when you start up a garden. The human spirit really likes experiencing the beauty of nature that is usually found in a garden. Trees and plants convey their own appeal to a garden, but adding garden decor can make the effect extra special. The many types of garden decor each serve a unique function.

A few large constructs which will change the overall look of your garden are Pillars, Gazebos, and Arbors, which can create the illusion of being bigger than it is. When working with these elements, you can create the perception of a classic garden by growing climbing plants that will cling to the structures. Putting in wind sculptures and statuaries can strengthen the look of your landscape. To bring in animals to your garden simply add simple bird feeders or bird baths. No garden is complete without birds chirping, so finding ways to entice them will definitely improve the atmosphere of your garden. Different architectural structures with trees and shrubs can help to maintain a nice balance. Manmade structures help to give nature a very personable effect.

When you have unwanted scenery or obtrusive structures that you would like blocked off, then use obelisks and trellises. Interferences may not be eliminated completely, so developing a perfect view will not be possible. But eyesores may be blocked once you install these structures, and a trellis can support a clinging vine. The sounds of water dripping or splashing coming from a fountain or pond will help you to relax in your garden. Water features tend to be for a natural ambience that can make your garden a good spot for meditation exercises. If your budget makes it possible, you may opt to set up an imposing system instead of a lower cost simple rock fountain.

A garden can be relished anytime of day, particularly if you use some landscape lighting. These may be installed on plants or trees, that can be only short-term, and are used to make a romantic or enticing setting. Holiday lights, lanterns, or candles may also be used to light your garden. Using these lighting effects can keep your garden safer from strangers. You'll appreciate your garden more if you have some outdoor garden furniture. Your furnishings really should be as comfortable as possible so you will enjoy being in your garden. When you want to have barbecue dinners outdoors the furniture could be used as picnic furniture.

You'll find garden decor that matches your individual style and preference. Just go to your local garden store, or check out landscaping sites online. Locate the variety of things you want, make a budget that works for you and make your garden look beautiful.

Attention The next blog is interesting general use and although it is up to date at time of creation you can always visit the owners web site for the latest info on http://www.thetutuguru.com.au/product-category/plant-types/foliage/. Thankyou - Comments: 0

Earth Hour: a growing success - 20 Apr 2018 09:30

Tags:

Original article here http://energis.com.au/earth-hour-a-growing-success/


A record of 188 countries and territories joined the Earth Hour movement this year. The Opera House, Big Ben, the Empire State Building, the Eiffel Tower along with over 17,900 landmarks and monuments switched their light off between 8:30 and 9:30 pm this March 26th.

Starting in Sydney in 2007, Earth Hour is now the world largest movement for climate change. Millions of people worldwide commit to turning their lights off for an hour. WWW, the organizer of the Earth Hour, reported a 4% drop in electricity consumption in Hong Kong during the Earth Hour 2015, the equivalent of 138 tons of CO2. Not that much – you would say, but Earth Hour isn’t about saving energy, it is about raising awareness and inspiring people to act for the planet.

solar power Melbourne

Paris Eiffel tower before and during Earth Hour.

“Once again, the people have spoken through Earth Hour,” said Marco Lambertini, Director General, WWF International in a statement “People are demanding commitment now on halting climate change and the loss of nature. The stakes are high and we need urgent action to protect the health of the planet for a safe future for us and all life on Earth.”

This year, the movement broke records with more than 3.5 billion impressions of the campaign hashtag #Connect2Earth in only 3 months. 250 celebrities and influencers from all around the world also participated, raising their voice for the planet. Among them: Jared Leto, Andy Murray, Ellie Goulding, and The Killers.

If you missed out on the Earth Hour 2018, the 2019 edition is planned on Saturday 30th of March 2019 at 8:30 pm.

More information about Earth Hour here.

While embracing the Earth Hour, act for the planet and reduce your carbon footprint (and your energy bill) by switching to solar! Call Energis today on 1300 782 217, or send us an enquiry. - Comments: 0

Asbestos Exposure & Risk of Developing Asbestos Related - 08 Mar 2018 09:38

Tags:

Asbestos is a naturally occurring rock forming mineral silicate in fibrous form belonging to the serpentine and amphibole groups. It occurs naturally in large deposits on every continent in the world. There are six types of naturally occurring asbestos fibres of which only three have been used commercially in Australia. These included the serpentine: Chrysotile (white asbestos); and the amphiboles: Crocidolite (blue asbestos) and Amosite (brown or grey asbestos). The other three non-commercially used amphiboles included Tremolite, Actinolite and Anthophyllite.

Asbestos has been used in the ancient world of the Egyptians, Greeks and Romans. It is believed that as early as 4000 BC, asbestos fibres were used for wicks in lamps and candles. Between 2000-3000 BC, embalmed bodies of Egyptian pharaohs were wrapped in asbestos cloth. The Greeks and Romans documented the harmful effects of asbestos fibres on those who mined the silken material from ancient stone quarries noting a “sickness of the lungs” in slaves who wove asbestos into cloth.

The commercial use of asbestos commenced in the late 1800s in Australia in four main industries including Mining and Milling; Building & Construction (for strengthening cement and plastics, for insulation, fireproofing and sound absorption); Ship Building (eg. insulation of boilers and steampipes) and the Automotive Industry (eg. vehicle brake shoes, gaskets and clutch pads).

There were over 3000 products (Asbestos Containing Materials or ACM) manufactured with asbestos fibres. The ACM fall into two broad categories: friable and non-friable (or bonded).

‘Friable’ is ACM that can be easily reduced to powder when crushed by hand, when dry. These materials can contain higher percentages of asbestos fibres and are easily or more likely to release airborne fibres into the environment with minimal disturbance. As such, they pose a greater risk to health. Friable materials must only be handled and removed by an asbestos removalist with Class A Asbestos Removal Licence. Examples of friable asbestos-containing materials include sprayed on fire retardants, insulation (eg. millboard, pipe insulation), sound proofing, the lining on some old domestic heaters, stoves and hot water systems and associated pipe lagging, the backing of sheet vinyl and linoleum floor coverings, thermal lagging, some vermiculite.

‘Non-friable’, or bonded ACM is used to refer to ACM in which the asbestos is firmly bound in the matrix of the material. These materials are unlikely to release measurable levels of airborne asbestos fibre into the environment if they are undisturbed. Therefore, they generally pose a lower risk to health. However, activities that may abrade the ACM such as drilling, grinding have the potential to release higher concentrations of airborne asbestos fibres into the environment. The non-friable ACM are mainly made up of asbestos fibres together with a bonding compound (such as cement), and typically contain up to 15 per cent asbestos. Non-friable ACM are solid, quite rigid and the asbestos fibres are tightly bound in the material. Non-friable ACM are the most common in domestic houses. They are commonly called ‘fibro’, ‘asbestos cement’ and ‘AC sheeting’. Examples of non-friable ACM include asbestos cement products (flat, profiled and corrugated sheeting used in walls, ceilings and roofs, moulded items such as downpipes) and vinyl floor tiles.

While asbestos is a hazardous material it can only pose a risk to health if the asbestos fibres become airborne in respirable size, are inhaled and lodge deep into the lungs (in the alveoli). Inhalation is the main route of entry to the body. Respirable fibres are fibres that are more likely to reach the small airways and alveolar region of the lung and are defined as having a length of more than five microns, and an aspect ratio (length/width) greater than 3:1.

Asbestos is classified according to the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) as Carcinogenicity Category 1A (May cause cancer).

There are several asbestos related diseases that may result from the exposure to asbestos which depends on factors such as fibre type; size and shape of fibres; concentration of asbestos fibres in the inhaled air and period of time over which the person was exposed. The asbestos related diseases include:

Asbestosis

Pleural plaques

Malignant mesothelioma of the pleura and peritoneum

Lung cancer

Benign asbestos pleural effusion

Progressive pleural fibrosis (diffuse pleural thickening)

Transpulmonary bands (crow’s feet)

Rounded atelectasis

All asbestos related diseases have a latency period that is the period commencing from the time of the exposure to the asbestos fibres first occurred until symptoms of a disease show. This may range from 10 – 50 years for the asbestos related diseases.

Workplace exposures to asbestos fibres first occurred while mining asbestos, manufacturing asbestos containing products or using those products during the construction of buildings. Currently, the main source of exposure to asbestos fibres is during the maintenance, renovation or demolition of old buildings with asbestos containing materials.

Asbestos containing materials are subject to environmental weathering which causes them to breakdown and release asbestos fibres. Low levels of airborne asbestos fibres are encountered in the environment from the breakdown of asbestos products. Environmental weathering of asbestos cement sheets in roofing and wall cladding, disturbance of asbestos from a variety of building materials like insulation and asbestos release to air from clutches and brakes in cars and trucks results in asbestos fibres being dispersed in the environment.

SESA

According to Australian Government Department of Health website, we are all exposed to low levels of asbestos in the air we breathe every day. Ambient or background air usually contains between 10 and 200 asbestos fibres in every 1000 litres (or cubic metre) of air (equivalent to 0.01 to 0.20 fibres per litre of air). However, most people do not become ill from this exposure, because the levels of asbestos present in the environment are very low. Most people are also exposed to higher levels of asbestos at some time in their lives; for example, in their workplace, community or home. However, for most people, this kind of infrequent exposure is also unlikely to result in any ill effects.

Safe Work Australia states that “the typical environmental background in outdoor air is 0.0005 fibres/ml and 0.0002 fibres/ml in indoor air. The daily inhalation volume for an average adult is 22 m3 or 22000 litres. This means 5500 fibres are breathed/day by the average person (proportion of time spent indoors = 20 hours/day). Despite this the general population does not contract asbestos related disease in significant numbers. The background rate of mesothelioma is less than one per million per year. By comparison, the annual death rate for a 40 year old male in 2008 was 1.6 per thousand or 1600 per million. However, there is no absolutely safe level of exposure to asbestos fibres.

Most people who develop asbestos related diseases were workers who have worked on jobs where they frequently breathed in large amounts of asbestos fibres. As an example, construction workers using unsafe practices in the past may have frequently encountered asbestos fibre levels significantly higher than those levels found in the background. The current workplace exposure standard (time weighted average (TWA) over an eight-hour period) is 0.1 fibres/millilitre of air (100 fibres per litre which is between 500 and 10,000 times the background levels). In the past, workers in asbestos milling or mining often encountered fibre concentrations a million times higher than background levels. In 2011, 606 deaths were caused by mesothelioma and 125 deaths were caused by asbestosis in Australia.

Family members of exposed workers or those who lived close to active asbestos mines in the past are also at risk. A worker exposed to asbestos fibres or a home renovator can carry asbestos fibres on their clothing, boots, skin, hair and tools. Everyone should be alert to ensure they do not become exposed to these fibres.

A very small number of asbestos-related disease cases occur each year in people who have not worked with asbestos products. The low number of cases makes it difficult to determine the exact cause of the disease or the likely exposure event, but unsafe handling of asbestos materials in the home may have contributed to some of these cases.

The uncontrolled disturbance of asbestos containing materials must be avoided at any time to prevent the release of airborne asbestos and increase the risk of exposure to airborne asbestos fibres. The exposure to airborne asbestos fibres should be reduced to as low as reasonably practicable by managing asbestos containing materials in-situ and adopting safe work practices as required by the Work Health & Safety Regulations and Safe Work Australia Codes of Practice “How to Manage & Control Asbestos In the Workplace”: and “ How to Safely Remove Asbestos”.

If you require assistance in asbestos inspection, asbestos testing or asbestos assessment contact SESA on 02 8786 1808.

First posted here https://www.sesa.com.au/15-asbestos/asbestos-exposure-risk-of-developing-asbestos-related-disease.html - Comments: 0

Asbestos Exposure & Risk of Developing Asbestos Related - 08 Mar 2018 08:49

Tags:

Asbestos is a naturally occurring rock forming mineral silicate in fibrous form belonging to the serpentine and amphibole groups. It occurs naturally in large deposits on every continent in the world. There are six types of naturally occurring asbestos fibres of which only three have been used commercially in Australia. These included the serpentine: Chrysotile (white asbestos); and the amphiboles: Crocidolite (blue asbestos) and Amosite (brown or grey asbestos). The other three non-commercially used amphiboles included Tremolite, Actinolite and Anthophyllite.

Asbestos has been used in the ancient world of the Egyptians, Greeks and Romans. It is believed that as early as 4000 BC, asbestos fibres were used for wicks in lamps and candles. Between 2000-3000 BC, embalmed bodies of Egyptian pharaohs were wrapped in asbestos cloth. The Greeks and Romans documented the harmful effects of asbestos fibres on those who mined the silken material from ancient stone quarries noting a “sickness of the lungs” in slaves who wove asbestos into cloth.

The commercial use of asbestos commenced in the late 1800s in Australia in four main industries including Mining and Milling; Building & Construction (for strengthening cement and plastics, for insulation, fireproofing and sound absorption); Ship Building (eg. insulation of boilers and steampipes) and the Automotive Industry (eg. vehicle brake shoes, gaskets and clutch pads).

There were over 3000 products (Asbestos Containing Materials or ACM) manufactured with asbestos fibres. The ACM fall into two broad categories: friable and non-friable (or bonded).

‘Friable’ is ACM that can be easily reduced to powder when crushed by hand, when dry. These materials can contain higher percentages of asbestos fibres and are easily or more likely to release airborne fibres into the environment with minimal disturbance. As such, they pose a greater risk to health. Friable materials must only be handled and removed by an asbestos removalist with Class A Asbestos Removal Licence. Examples of friable asbestos-containing materials include sprayed on fire retardants, insulation (eg. millboard, pipe insulation), sound proofing, the lining on some old domestic heaters, stoves and hot water systems and associated pipe lagging, the backing of sheet vinyl and linoleum floor coverings, thermal lagging, some vermiculite.

‘Non-friable’, or bonded ACM is used to refer to ACM in which the asbestos is firmly bound in the matrix of the material. These materials are unlikely to release measurable levels of airborne asbestos fibre into the environment if they are undisturbed. Therefore, they generally pose a lower risk to health. However, activities that may abrade the ACM such as drilling, grinding have the potential to release higher concentrations of airborne asbestos fibres into the environment. The non-friable ACM are mainly made up of asbestos fibres together with a bonding compound (such as cement), and typically contain up to 15 per cent asbestos. Non-friable ACM are solid, quite rigid and the asbestos fibres are tightly bound in the material. Non-friable ACM are the most common in domestic houses. They are commonly called ‘fibro’, ‘asbestos cement’ and ‘AC sheeting’. Examples of non-friable ACM include asbestos cement products (flat, profiled and corrugated sheeting used in walls, ceilings and roofs, moulded items such as downpipes) and vinyl floor tiles.

While asbestos is a hazardous material it can only pose a risk to health if the asbestos fibres become airborne in respirable size, are inhaled and lodge deep into the lungs (in the alveoli). Inhalation is the main route of entry to the body. Respirable fibres are fibres that are more likely to reach the small airways and alveolar region of the lung and are defined as having a length of more than five microns, and an aspect ratio (length/width) greater than 3:1.

Asbestos is classified according to the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) as Carcinogenicity Category 1A (May cause cancer).

There are several asbestos related diseases that may result from the exposure to asbestos which depends on factors such as fibre type; size and shape of fibres; concentration of asbestos fibres in the inhaled air and period of time over which the person was exposed. The asbestos related diseases include:

Asbestosis

Pleural plaques

Malignant mesothelioma of the pleura and peritoneum

Lung cancer

Benign asbestos pleural effusion

Progressive pleural fibrosis (diffuse pleural thickening)

Transpulmonary bands (crow’s feet)

https://www.sesa.com.au/indoor-air-quality-testing-consultants-occupational-hygienists-sydney-nsw-act.html

Rounded atelectasis

All asbestos related diseases have a latency period that is the period commencing from the time of the exposure to the asbestos fibres first occurred until symptoms of a disease show. This may range from 10 – 50 years for the asbestos related diseases.

Workplace exposures to asbestos fibres first occurred while mining asbestos, manufacturing asbestos containing products or using those products during the construction of buildings. Currently, the main source of exposure to asbestos fibres is during the maintenance, renovation or demolition of old buildings with asbestos containing materials.

Asbestos containing materials are subject to environmental weathering which causes them to breakdown and release asbestos fibres. Low levels of airborne asbestos fibres are encountered in the environment from the breakdown of asbestos products. Environmental weathering of asbestos cement sheets in roofing and wall cladding, disturbance of asbestos from a variety of building materials like insulation and asbestos release to air from clutches and brakes in cars and trucks results in asbestos fibres being dispersed in the environment.

According to Australian Government Department of Health website, we are all exposed to low levels of asbestos in the air we breathe every day. Ambient or background air usually contains between 10 and 200 asbestos fibres in every 1000 litres (or cubic metre) of air (equivalent to 0.01 to 0.20 fibres per litre of air). However, most people do not become ill from this exposure, because the levels of asbestos present in the environment are very low. Most people are also exposed to higher levels of asbestos at some time in their lives; for example, in their workplace, community or home. However, for most people, this kind of infrequent exposure is also unlikely to result in any ill effects.

Safe Work Australia states that “the typical environmental background in outdoor air is 0.0005 fibres/ml and 0.0002 fibres/ml in indoor air. The daily inhalation volume for an average adult is 22 m3 or 22000 litres. This means 5500 fibres are breathed/day by the average person (proportion of time spent indoors = 20 hours/day). Despite this the general population does not contract asbestos related disease in significant numbers. The background rate of mesothelioma is less than one per million per year. By comparison, the annual death rate for a 40 year old male in 2008 was 1.6 per thousand or 1600 per million. However, there is no absolutely safe level of exposure to asbestos fibres.

Most people who develop asbestos related diseases were workers who have worked on jobs where they frequently breathed in large amounts of asbestos fibres. As an example, construction workers using unsafe practices in the past may have frequently encountered asbestos fibre levels significantly higher than those levels found in the background. The current workplace exposure standard (time weighted average (TWA) over an eight-hour period) is 0.1 fibres/millilitre of air (100 fibres per litre which is between 500 and 10,000 times the background levels). In the past, workers in asbestos milling or mining often encountered fibre concentrations a million times higher than background levels. In 2011, 606 deaths were caused by mesothelioma and 125 deaths were caused by asbestosis in Australia.

Family members of exposed workers or those who lived close to active asbestos mines in the past are also at risk. A worker exposed to asbestos fibres or a home renovator can carry asbestos fibres on their clothing, boots, skin, hair and tools. Everyone should be alert to ensure they do not become exposed to these fibres.

A very small number of asbestos-related disease cases occur each year in people who have not worked with asbestos products. The low number of cases makes it difficult to determine the exact cause of the disease or the likely exposure event, but unsafe handling of asbestos materials in the home may have contributed to some of these cases.

The uncontrolled disturbance of asbestos containing materials must be avoided at any time to prevent the release of airborne asbestos and increase the risk of exposure to airborne asbestos fibres. The exposure to airborne asbestos fibres should be reduced to as low as reasonably practicable by managing asbestos containing materials in-situ and adopting safe work practices as required by the Work Health & Safety Regulations and Safe Work Australia Codes of Practice “How to Manage & Control Asbestos In the Workplace”: and “ How to Safely Remove Asbestos”.

If you require assistance in asbestos inspection, asbestos testing or asbestos assessment contact SESA on 02 8786 1808.

First posted here https://www.sesa.com.au/15-asbestos/asbestos-exposure-risk-of-developing-asbestos-related-disease.html - Comments: 0

Asbestos Exposure & Risk of Developing Asbestos Related - 08 Mar 2018 06:30

Tags:

Asbestos is a naturally occurring rock forming mineral silicate in fibrous form belonging to the serpentine and amphibole groups. It occurs naturally in large deposits on every continent in the world. There are six types of naturally occurring asbestos fibres of which only three have been used commercially in Australia. These included the serpentine: Chrysotile (white asbestos); and the amphiboles: Crocidolite (blue asbestos) and Amosite (brown or grey asbestos). The other three non-commercially used amphiboles included Tremolite, Actinolite and Anthophyllite.

Asbestos has been used in the ancient world of the Egyptians, Greeks and Romans. It is believed that as early as 4000 BC, asbestos fibres were used for wicks in lamps and candles. Between 2000-3000 BC, embalmed bodies of Egyptian pharaohs were wrapped in asbestos cloth. The Greeks and Romans documented the harmful effects of asbestos fibres on those who mined the silken material from ancient stone quarries noting a “sickness of the lungs” in slaves who wove asbestos into cloth.

The commercial use of asbestos commenced in the late 1800s in Australia in four main industries including Mining and Milling; Building & Construction (for strengthening cement and plastics, for insulation, fireproofing and sound absorption); Ship Building (eg. insulation of boilers and steampipes) and the Automotive Industry (eg. vehicle brake shoes, gaskets and clutch pads).

There were over 3000 products (Asbestos Containing Materials or ACM) manufactured with asbestos fibres. The ACM fall into two broad categories: friable and non-friable (or bonded).

‘Friable’ is ACM that can be easily reduced to powder when crushed by hand, when dry. These materials can contain higher percentages of asbestos fibres and are easily or more likely to release airborne fibres into the environment with minimal disturbance. As such, they pose a greater risk to health. Friable materials must only be handled and removed by an asbestos removalist with Class A Asbestos Removal Licence. Examples of friable asbestos-containing materials include sprayed on fire retardants, insulation (eg. millboard, pipe insulation), sound proofing, the lining on some old domestic heaters, stoves and hot water systems and associated pipe lagging, the backing of sheet vinyl and linoleum floor coverings, thermal lagging, some vermiculite.

‘Non-friable’, or bonded ACM is used to refer to ACM in which the asbestos is firmly bound in the matrix of the material. These materials are unlikely to release measurable levels of airborne asbestos fibre into the environment if they are undisturbed. Therefore, they generally pose a lower risk to health. However, activities that may abrade the ACM such as drilling, grinding have the potential to release higher concentrations of airborne asbestos fibres into the environment. The non-friable ACM are mainly made up of asbestos fibres together with a bonding compound (such as cement), and typically contain up to 15 per cent asbestos. Non-friable ACM are solid, quite rigid and the asbestos fibres are tightly bound in the material. Non-friable ACM are the most common in domestic houses. They are commonly called ‘fibro’, ‘asbestos cement’ and ‘AC sheeting’. Examples of non-friable ACM include asbestos cement products (flat, profiled and corrugated sheeting used in walls, ceilings and roofs, moulded items such as downpipes) and vinyl floor tiles.

While asbestos is a hazardous material it can only pose a risk to health if the asbestos fibres become airborne in respirable size, are inhaled and lodge deep into the lungs (in the alveoli). Inhalation is the main route of entry to the body. Respirable fibres are fibres that are more likely to reach the small airways and alveolar region of the lung and are defined as having a length of more than five microns, and an aspect ratio (length/width) greater than 3:1.

Asbestos is classified according to the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) as Carcinogenicity Category 1A (May cause cancer).

There are several asbestos related diseases that may result from the exposure to asbestos which depends on factors such as fibre type; size and shape of fibres; concentration of asbestos fibres in the inhaled air and period of time over which the person was exposed. The asbestos related diseases include:

Asbestosis

Pleural plaques

Malignant mesothelioma of the pleura and peritoneum

Lung cancer

Benign asbestos pleural effusion

Progressive pleural fibrosis (diffuse pleural thickening)

SESA

Transpulmonary bands (crow’s feet)

Rounded atelectasis

All asbestos related diseases have a latency period that is the period commencing from the time of the exposure to the asbestos fibres first occurred until symptoms of a disease show. This may range from 10 – 50 years for the asbestos related diseases.

Workplace exposures to asbestos fibres first occurred while mining asbestos, manufacturing asbestos containing products or using those products during the construction of buildings. Currently, the main source of exposure to asbestos fibres is during the maintenance, renovation or demolition of old buildings with asbestos containing materials.

Asbestos containing materials are subject to environmental weathering which causes them to breakdown and release asbestos fibres. Low levels of airborne asbestos fibres are encountered in the environment from the breakdown of asbestos products. Environmental weathering of asbestos cement sheets in roofing and wall cladding, disturbance of asbestos from a variety of building materials like insulation and asbestos release to air from clutches and brakes in cars and trucks results in asbestos fibres being dispersed in the environment.

According to Australian Government Department of Health website, we are all exposed to low levels of asbestos in the air we breathe every day. Ambient or background air usually contains between 10 and 200 asbestos fibres in every 1000 litres (or cubic metre) of air (equivalent to 0.01 to 0.20 fibres per litre of air). However, most people do not become ill from this exposure, because the levels of asbestos present in the environment are very low. Most people are also exposed to higher levels of asbestos at some time in their lives; for example, in their workplace, community or home. However, for most people, this kind of infrequent exposure is also unlikely to result in any ill effects.

Safe Work Australia states that “the typical environmental background in outdoor air is 0.0005 fibres/ml and 0.0002 fibres/ml in indoor air. The daily inhalation volume for an average adult is 22 m3 or 22000 litres. This means 5500 fibres are breathed/day by the average person (proportion of time spent indoors = 20 hours/day). Despite this the general population does not contract asbestos related disease in significant numbers. The background rate of mesothelioma is less than one per million per year. By comparison, the annual death rate for a 40 year old male in 2008 was 1.6 per thousand or 1600 per million. However, there is no absolutely safe level of exposure to asbestos fibres.

Most people who develop asbestos related diseases were workers who have worked on jobs where they frequently breathed in large amounts of asbestos fibres. As an example, construction workers using unsafe practices in the past may have frequently encountered asbestos fibre levels significantly higher than those levels found in the background. The current workplace exposure standard (time weighted average (TWA) over an eight-hour period) is 0.1 fibres/millilitre of air (100 fibres per litre which is between 500 and 10,000 times the background levels). In the past, workers in asbestos milling or mining often encountered fibre concentrations a million times higher than background levels. In 2011, 606 deaths were caused by mesothelioma and 125 deaths were caused by asbestosis in Australia.

Family members of exposed workers or those who lived close to active asbestos mines in the past are also at risk. A worker exposed to asbestos fibres or a home renovator can carry asbestos fibres on their clothing, boots, skin, hair and tools. Everyone should be alert to ensure they do not become exposed to these fibres.

A very small number of asbestos-related disease cases occur each year in people who have not worked with asbestos products. The low number of cases makes it difficult to determine the exact cause of the disease or the likely exposure event, but unsafe handling of asbestos materials in the home may have contributed to some of these cases.

The uncontrolled disturbance of asbestos containing materials must be avoided at any time to prevent the release of airborne asbestos and increase the risk of exposure to airborne asbestos fibres. The exposure to airborne asbestos fibres should be reduced to as low as reasonably practicable by managing asbestos containing materials in-situ and adopting safe work practices as required by the Work Health & Safety Regulations and Safe Work Australia Codes of Practice “How to Manage & Control Asbestos In the Workplace”: and “ How to Safely Remove Asbestos”.

If you require assistance in asbestos inspection, asbestos testing or asbestos assessment contact SESA on 02 8786 1808.

First posted here https://www.sesa.com.au/15-asbestos/asbestos-exposure-risk-of-developing-asbestos-related-disease.html - Comments: 0

Asbestos Exposure & Risk of Developing Asbestos Related - 08 Mar 2018 05:13

Tags:

Asbestos is a naturally occurring rock forming mineral silicate in fibrous form belonging to the serpentine and amphibole groups. It occurs naturally in large deposits on every continent in the world. There are six types of naturally occurring asbestos fibres of which only three have been used commercially in Australia. These included the serpentine: Chrysotile (white asbestos); and the amphiboles: Crocidolite (blue asbestos) and Amosite (brown or grey asbestos). The other three non-commercially used amphiboles included Tremolite, Actinolite and Anthophyllite.

Asbestos has been used in the ancient world of the Egyptians, Greeks and Romans. It is believed that as early as 4000 BC, asbestos fibres were used for wicks in lamps and candles. Between 2000-3000 BC, embalmed bodies of Egyptian pharaohs were wrapped in asbestos cloth. The Greeks and Romans documented the harmful effects of asbestos fibres on those who mined the silken material from ancient stone quarries noting a “sickness of the lungs” in slaves who wove asbestos into cloth.

The commercial use of asbestos commenced in the late 1800s in Australia in four main industries including Mining and Milling; Building & Construction (for strengthening cement and plastics, for insulation, fireproofing and sound absorption); Ship Building (eg. insulation of boilers and steampipes) and the Automotive Industry (eg. vehicle brake shoes, gaskets and clutch pads).

There were over 3000 products (Asbestos Containing Materials or ACM) manufactured with asbestos fibres. The ACM fall into two broad categories: friable and non-friable (or bonded).

‘Friable’ is ACM that can be easily reduced to powder when crushed by hand, when dry. These materials can contain higher percentages of asbestos fibres and are easily or more likely to release airborne fibres into the environment with minimal disturbance. As such, they pose a greater risk to health. Friable materials must only be handled and removed by an asbestos removalist with Class A Asbestos Removal Licence. Examples of friable asbestos-containing materials include sprayed on fire retardants, insulation (eg. millboard, pipe insulation), sound proofing, the lining on some old domestic heaters, stoves and hot water systems and associated pipe lagging, the backing of sheet vinyl and linoleum floor coverings, thermal lagging, some vermiculite.

‘Non-friable’, or bonded ACM is used to refer to ACM in which the asbestos is firmly bound in the matrix of the material. These materials are unlikely to release measurable levels of airborne asbestos fibre into the environment if they are undisturbed. Therefore, they generally pose a lower risk to health. However, activities that may abrade the ACM such as drilling, grinding have the potential to release higher concentrations of airborne asbestos fibres into the environment. The non-friable ACM are mainly made up of asbestos fibres together with a bonding compound (such as cement), and typically contain up to 15 per cent asbestos. Non-friable ACM are solid, quite rigid and the asbestos fibres are tightly bound in the material. Non-friable ACM are the most common in domestic houses. They are commonly called ‘fibro’, ‘asbestos cement’ and ‘AC sheeting’. Examples of non-friable ACM include asbestos cement products (flat, profiled and corrugated sheeting used in walls, ceilings and roofs, moulded items such as downpipes) and vinyl floor tiles.

While asbestos is a hazardous material it can only pose a risk to health if the asbestos fibres become airborne in respirable size, are inhaled and lodge deep into the lungs (in the alveoli). Inhalation is the main route of entry to the body. Respirable fibres are fibres that are more likely to reach the small airways and alveolar region of the lung and are defined as having a length of more than five microns, and an aspect ratio (length/width) greater than 3:1.

Asbestos is classified according to the Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) as Carcinogenicity Category 1A (May cause cancer).

There are several asbestos related diseases that may result from the exposure to asbestos which depends on factors such as fibre type; size and shape of fibres; concentration of asbestos fibres in the inhaled air and period of time over which the person was exposed. The asbestos related diseases include:

Asbestosis

Pleural plaques

Malignant mesothelioma of the pleura and peritoneum

Lung cancer

Benign asbestos pleural effusion

Progressive pleural fibrosis (diffuse pleural thickening)

Transpulmonary bands (crow’s feet)

Safety & Environmental Services Australia

Rounded atelectasis

All asbestos related diseases have a latency period that is the period commencing from the time of the exposure to the asbestos fibres first occurred until symptoms of a disease show. This may range from 10 – 50 years for the asbestos related diseases.

Workplace exposures to asbestos fibres first occurred while mining asbestos, manufacturing asbestos containing products or using those products during the construction of buildings. Currently, the main source of exposure to asbestos fibres is during the maintenance, renovation or demolition of old buildings with asbestos containing materials.

Asbestos containing materials are subject to environmental weathering which causes them to breakdown and release asbestos fibres. Low levels of airborne asbestos fibres are encountered in the environment from the breakdown of asbestos products. Environmental weathering of asbestos cement sheets in roofing and wall cladding, disturbance of asbestos from a variety of building materials like insulation and asbestos release to air from clutches and brakes in cars and trucks results in asbestos fibres being dispersed in the environment.

According to Australian Government Department of Health website, we are all exposed to low levels of asbestos in the air we breathe every day. Ambient or background air usually contains between 10 and 200 asbestos fibres in every 1000 litres (or cubic metre) of air (equivalent to 0.01 to 0.20 fibres per litre of air). However, most people do not become ill from this exposure, because the levels of asbestos present in the environment are very low. Most people are also exposed to higher levels of asbestos at some time in their lives; for example, in their workplace, community or home. However, for most people, this kind of infrequent exposure is also unlikely to result in any ill effects.

Safe Work Australia states that “the typical environmental background in outdoor air is 0.0005 fibres/ml and 0.0002 fibres/ml in indoor air. The daily inhalation volume for an average adult is 22 m3 or 22000 litres. This means 5500 fibres are breathed/day by the average person (proportion of time spent indoors = 20 hours/day). Despite this the general population does not contract asbestos related disease in significant numbers. The background rate of mesothelioma is less than one per million per year. By comparison, the annual death rate for a 40 year old male in 2008 was 1.6 per thousand or 1600 per million. However, there is no absolutely safe level of exposure to asbestos fibres.

Most people who develop asbestos related diseases were workers who have worked on jobs where they frequently breathed in large amounts of asbestos fibres. As an example, construction workers using unsafe practices in the past may have frequently encountered asbestos fibre levels significantly higher than those levels found in the background. The current workplace exposure standard (time weighted average (TWA) over an eight-hour period) is 0.1 fibres/millilitre of air (100 fibres per litre which is between 500 and 10,000 times the background levels). In the past, workers in asbestos milling or mining often encountered fibre concentrations a million times higher than background levels. In 2011, 606 deaths were caused by mesothelioma and 125 deaths were caused by asbestosis in Australia.

Family members of exposed workers or those who lived close to active asbestos mines in the past are also at risk. A worker exposed to asbestos fibres or a home renovator can carry asbestos fibres on their clothing, boots, skin, hair and tools. Everyone should be alert to ensure they do not become exposed to these fibres.

A very small number of asbestos-related disease cases occur each year in people who have not worked with asbestos products. The low number of cases makes it difficult to determine the exact cause of the disease or the likely exposure event, but unsafe handling of asbestos materials in the home may have contributed to some of these cases.

The uncontrolled disturbance of asbestos containing materials must be avoided at any time to prevent the release of airborne asbestos and increase the risk of exposure to airborne asbestos fibres. The exposure to airborne asbestos fibres should be reduced to as low as reasonably practicable by managing asbestos containing materials in-situ and adopting safe work practices as required by the Work Health & Safety Regulations and Safe Work Australia Codes of Practice “How to Manage & Control Asbestos In the Workplace”: and “ How to Safely Remove Asbestos”.

If you require assistance in asbestos inspection, asbestos testing or asbestos assessment contact SESA on 02 8786 1808.

First posted here https://www.sesa.com.au/15-asbestos/asbestos-exposure-risk-of-developing-asbestos-related-disease.html - Comments: 0

page 1 of 512345next »

Unless otherwise stated, the content of this page is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License